Categories
slack-gis-tips

Public transport and school location impacts on educational inequalities in Sao Paulo

In 2016, I had the opportunity to attend a session at the AAG conference where Ana Moreno-Monroy presented a very interesting paper analyzing inequalities in school accessibility by public transport  in Sao Paulo. The paper is coming out in the Journal of Transport Geography and it’s coauthored by Robin Lovelace and Fred Ramos, such a great team. I should also note that a big chunk of the data analysis was conducted in R using stplanr, a library for transport planning developed by Robin and Richard Ellison and which is a major contribution to the field.
Moreno-Monroy, A. I., Lovelace, R., & Ramos, F. R. (2017). Public transport and school location impacts on educational inequalities: Insights from São PauloJournal of Transport Geography.
Categories
Idee e progetti

Pokemon Go reinventa lo Spatial Planning

Che vi piaccia o no, Pokémon Go segna un punto di svolta. Dopo circa un mese dal lancio, questa location-based app ha trasformato radicalmente il mondo del gaming e ha creato una tribù globale di esploratori urbani. Questo coloratissimo monster-packed game potrà cambiare il campo e la professione dello spatial planning e della progettazione ambientale.
Pokémon Go è una location-based gaming app nella quale gli utenti si fanno strada nel mondo reale utilizzando una mappa 3D per cercare e catturare le creature immaginarie chiamate Pokémon. Il mondo Pokémon contiene luoghi geo-tagged, conosciuti come PokéStops (generalmente localizzati in luoghi pubblici) dove i giocatori possono sfidarsi usando i loro cellulari. Quando i giocatori si imbattono nei Pokémon, queste creature si sovrappongono allo sfondo reale, utilizzando la realtà aumentata con la fotocamera dello smartphone.Da una prospettiva tecnologica, Pokémon Go è particolarmente impressionante perchè unisce realtà aumentata, dispositivi mobili e gaming, insieme al sistema globale di navigazione satellitare (GNSS). Da una prospettiva geospaziale però, è molto di più.OpenStreetMap e Google Maps sono cartografie comuni, non professionali. Ci sono mappe che riportano informazioni più “consolidate” e soprattutto di maggior qualità. A questo si possono aggiungere mediante il geotagging, la documentazione di corredo per arricchire il dato. Infatti, per geotagging e geofancing si intende tecnicamente aggiungere i meta alle coordinate di un punto o alle forme geometriche linee e poligoni. In sostanza, l’aggiunta della foto ad una coppia di coordinate (latitudine e longitudine) significa proprio questo. Questo permette di proiettare sui nostri dispositivi il mondo reale, aggiungendo la possibilità di vedere solo quello che serve.

Così potreste chiedere, qual è la connessione tra lo spatial planner e lo sviluppatore Pokémon / GIS? Bene, lo spatial planner pianifica spazi – lui o lei decide cosa dovrebbe essere costruito, dove e quando dovrebbe essere costruito. Prendendo le decisioni, i planners cercano di assicurare che gli spazi siano giusti, salutari, sicuri e vivibili e il loro lavoro ha implicazioni di tipo far-reaching e long-lasting. Così facendo, i planners affrontano (e combattono) anche i loro veri Pokémon a forma di ingegneri, architetti, costruttori, membri della comunità e policy-makers.
Come gli spatial planners, gli sviluppatori dietro Pokémon Go stanno creando nuovi spazi e luoghi. Invece di farlo attraverso policy, zoning e linee guida di design urbano, stanno re-immaginando gli spazi attraverso strati di informazione spaziale, che è poi utilizzata dai cacciatori di Pokémon.
Essi stanno gestendo l’attivazione di spazi che prima erano passivi e così facendo stanno reinventando l’ambiente costruito.
Pokémon Go is a location based gaming app in which users navigate the real world using a representative 3D map in order to search for and capture imaginary creatures called Pokémon.
Pokémon Go is a location based gaming app in which users navigate the real world using a representative 3D map in order to search for and capture imaginary creatures called Pokémon.

Se sono stati mossi i passi giusti, Pokémon Go ha un enorme potere per i planners e per la disciplina dello spatial planning nell’insieme. Fino ad ora, i planners hanno formulato soluzioni nel mondo reale – impegno della community, cambiamenti politici, piani di costruzione, strategie di design urbano e misure di planning enforcement. L’arrivo di Pokémon Go indica che il regno virtuale è un nuovo campo di battaglia che i planners dovrebbero considerare e in cui inserirsi se la materia è attinente. Oltre al potenziale di creare nuovi ambienti urbani e di rivitalizzare gli esistenti, Pokémon Go potrebbe fornire ai planners un nuovo modo di coinvolgere e consigliare gli abitanti urbani, che potrebbero non essere coinvolti nei processi di consulenza di comunità standard.

Di importanza chiave è che il nuovo regno virtuale richiederà ai planners di imparare e impegnarsi con la tecnologia e i dati usati per creare Pokémon Go. Con le giuste competenze, strumenti e una sana dose di immaginazione, i planners potrebbero usare potenzialmente dati under-utilised public-domain per creare app simili che aiutino a reinventare le comunità locali.
Ciò che Pokémon Go dimostra è che il geospatial world si sta muovendo verso una nuova emozionante direzione e sta iniziando a convergere con una serie di altre tecnologie, dati e user. Grazie a giochi come questo, gli user iniziano ad esplorare e apprezzare il mondo in un modo totalmente nuovo.
Gli spatial planners dovrebbero tenersi al passo.
Articolo originale: linkedin.com/40-geospatial-friday-pokémon-go-reinvents-spatial-planning-conway by Niall Conway geobreadbox.com
Categories
Map tutorial

Mappa online Legnano completa solo su OpenStreetMap

Un giorno della settimana scorsa, sono tornato su OpenStreetMap, per vedere come era mappata la città di Legnano. Sapevo di non trovarmi granché, ma speravo che fosse mappata in buona parte. Ho creato subito un atlante col tool online mapOSMatic e il risultato lo potete trovare qui:

[wc_button type=”primary” url=”https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BytcIAPEPdQxRG1ybHFJdXhYdDQ/view?usp=sharing” title=”Legnano su OpenStreetMap prima dell’aggiornamento” target=”self” position=”float”]Scarica PDF Atlante di Legnano (com’era)[/wc_button]

oppure vai al repository di mapOSMatic

Parlo sempre di OpenStreetMap e invito/insegno tutti a mappare e quando mi sono reso conto dello stato in cui era la città dove mi trovo abitualmente, mi sono un po’ vergognato. Non è la prima volta che voglio intraprendere la mappatura completa, visto le varie lettere al Comune, in cui chiedevo l’aerofotogrammetrico aggiornato, allo scopo di riprodurlo in OpenStreetMap, con la delibera che in questi casa è necessaria.

Sono così pronto a mappare Legnano, ma: che base uso? Di default posso ricalcare le mappe di Bing, ma spesso non si ha il massimo della visibilità e l’errore dovuto a ombre e a “tetti alti” può portare ad errori, poco trascurabili, anche se tutto sommato, spesso è meglio avere una cartografia completa con errori di 2-3m, che non averla affatto (in termini di visione pubblica e/o navigazione, ma anche pianificazione territoriale).

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[wc_image attachment_id=”4656″ size=”” title=”” alt=”” caption=”” link_to=”post” url=”https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BytcIAPEPdQxRG1ybHFJdXhYdDQ/view?usp=sharing” align=”none” flag=”OpenStreetMap” left=”” top=”” right=”0″ bottom=”20″ text_color=”” background_color=”” font_size=”” text_align=”center” flag_width=””][/wc_image]

[/wc_column][wc_column size=”one-half” position=”last”]

[wc_image attachment_id=”4657″ size=”” title=”” alt=”” caption=”” link_to=”post” url=”https://www.bing.com/maps/#Y3A9NDUuNjExNTAwfjguODk5MTAwJmx2bD01JnN0eT1yJndoZXJlMT1sZWduYW5v” align=”none” flag=”Bing maps” left=”” top=”” right=”0″ bottom=”20″ text_color=”” background_color=”” font_size=”” text_align=”center” flag_width=””][/wc_image]

[/wc_column][/wc_row]

Un po’ permesso ho iniziato a cercare tra i vari servizi WMS se c’èera qualcosa di interessante e mi è venuto il dubbio che nel progetto Database Topografico – DbT, a cui hanno aderito 1244 comuni su 1544, non ci fosse proprio Legnano e che in fosse finito l’iter di aggiornamento. Mi sono diretto subito a controllare Stato di avanzamento del progetto Database Topografico e con qualche giro di link ho avuto la bella notizia che Legnano ha una nuova cartografia.

Tra l’altro c’è anche il servizio WMS preso dal geoportale della Regione Lombardia – Carta Tecnica Regionale 1:10000 aggiornata dai Database Topografici. Così ho provato subito a caricarlo in JOSM, per capire se potevo partire con la mia editazione “massiva”.

JOSM WMS Lombardia
Carta Tecnica Regionale 1:10000 aggiornata dai Database Topografici

Ricalcare una mappa come questa è in regola con la guida di OpenStreetMap, perchè è rilasciata con licenza IODL2.0 (Italian Open Data License v2.0).

In base a questa licenza Sei libero di:

  • riprodurre, distribuire al pubblico, concedere in locazione, presentare e dimostrare in pubblico, comunicare al pubblico, messa a disposizione del pubblico inclusa, trasmettere e ritrasmettere in qualunque modo, eseguire, recitare, rappresentare, includere in opere collettive e/o composte pubblicare, estrarre e reimpiegare le Informazioni;
  • creare un Lavoro derivato ed esercitare sul Lavoro derivato i diritti di cui al punto precedente, per esempio attraverso la combinazione con altre informazioni (mashup).

Creazione della mappa online legnano completa

  • ricalcare 5-6.000 (calcolo finale) edifici non sembrava un lavoro veloce
  • in certi momenti dicevo: “finisco il quartiere e poi qualcuno andrà avanti”
  • le tecniche anti-noia sono state svariate: comporre quartieri, seguire le strade, non guardare a scala piccola, prima i building, poi le industrie, …
  • un edificio è composto da 4 o più nodi e ho scoperto che ingrandire la scala, mi permetteva di fare un lavoro di precisione più veloce, ma la mancata di visione di insieme, mi ingannava un po’
  • overpass-turbo alla fine mi ha dato il risultato dei 5-6.000 edifici, ma anche che i nodi che compongo gli edifici superano i 40.000 (vedi query su overpass-turbo)
  • ho rovinato il pulsante del mouse e invito chi volesse intraprendere questa impresa, di trovare una posizione comoda e di tenere il gomito appoggiato al tavolo, nonché uno schermo da 20-24″
  • tempo totale: quasi 30h in diretta! (video1video2video3)

[wc_button type=”primary” url=”https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BytcIAPEPdQxOWhpZ2h4SkpNS28/view?usp=sharing” title=”Mappa online Legnano completa solo su OpenStreetMap” target=”self” position=”float”]Atlante del risultato finale[/wc_button]

Mappa online Legnano completa solo su OpenStreetMap

Categories
Map tutorial

Mappa Cantieri

Ho iniziato col raccolgiere informazioni sulla Metropolitana Ⓜ⑤ di Milano e così ho testato il funzionamento del sistema. Seguire l’avanzamento dei lavori, raccogliere foto e vedere cosa si scrive sui forum è sempre stato il mio hobby. Una mappa online che si collega agli elementi di OSM è qualcosa di più: una PASSIONE. Mediante questa mappa, che integra WordPress e i dati di OpenStreetMap, posso creare degli articoli con molte più informazioni e nello stesso tempo monitorare l’aggiornamento dei Mappers.


Lista contenuti Mappa Cantieri

Categories
Idee e progetti

Yet another strategic planning Tool

The land use planning (which in this paper we call “LUPlanning”) is a complex matter that needs of clearness and standardize methods. This work proposes an effective tool for strategic planning, which provides the use of informatic systems to aid the decision makers and insiders of public body that are not professionals. The use of informatics makes easier and real time the public participation, an important critical point of planning, often difficult to implement for scepticism and in many town hard to really carry out, due to inadequate means.

The aim of the proposed tool is to furnish a way to simplification of LUPlanning process and decision, using available and cheap hardware and software solutions. Computerization is not just a fad, but is almost inevitable evolution of management systems, so make it the most for the municipality means facilitating the work of technicians and insiders and the active involvement of citizens, for a more effective, rational and strategic land planning.

Yet another strategic planning Tool

Each time that is necessary to make a decision on transformation or consolidation of a territory it is extremely useful to apply a method that could simplify the data navigation and the understanding of information, through an opportune choice of scalar indicators. A such useful method have to be developed with a series of evolutive steps, that our cities should follow, starting from a low level of knowledge and set up, more or less, relating to their dynamic and their data collection that each institution has performed over the last decade. This is the time period in which the new technologies and new software have been able to meet the various needs of storage and mapping of data and territorial informations. And are just these technologies that could be developed in function of the needs of planning, aiming to resolve the most common problems. We faced two in particular. The first and problem is the poor training of insiders of public administrations in the field of land planning. This fact has the obvious reason that not all of the mayors, councillors and municipal engineers have the same degree in strategic land use planning and that there is not any course to become a local governor yet. Therefore the decision maker that faced with a problem has some difficult often hard doing his work.

The second problem has the same importance of the former, but it’s strictly related to it and consists in the participation of public to the land planning activity, recommended in regional laws. In our country, in Europe and in United States we can found virtuous example of participating local government plan (e.g. Participating PGT of some Italian cities) taking the advantage of the help of tools like Public Participatory GIS. However these are some examples, but for the most part of town, small and big, the public participation is not easy to realize, because of inadequate means and resources and for scepticism of citizens, which in many cases don’t believe that their opinion or contribution is welcomed and listened by the municipality. Thus there is a need to improve the public participation process with simple tools easily adoptable and usable.

In this work is presented a method for strategic planning that provides some simple tools today already diffuses, in a technological approach, forward-looking. The method prompt to build a dashboard for the land use planners, a sort of command and control panel that lead to an easier decisional process and it affords the time monitoring of the evolving of choices of decision makers. A dashboard can be built using software open source for data management. Placed side by side to the dashboard, the method provides also a solution for a very important point of land planning, the public participation, suggesting the adoption of a Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS)1, in order to involve the citizens in the planning activity and related. The public participation is a question that needs more and more attention, because citizens are naturally the “recipients” of every territorial and urban change, because they constitute the City. Thus this method wants to make the public participation easier, both for the land use planners and the citizens, spreading the territorial awareness.

Ideal Strategic Planning Tool

For a land use planner may be wishful to find the ideal strategic planning instrument that can resolve all of the problems of a city. By researching among the useful tools that the existing hardware and software technologies offer, it is really feasible to create an ideal strategic planning tool, building over the needs of the urban reality, which certainly doesn’t resolve all of the problems automatically, but it would be helpfully.

In order to make a unique tool for strategic LUPlanning aid, one could look around to the available resources, combining a set of software, hardware and, of course, ideas (Fig.1).

For this purpose, it could be useful to set up a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) with the aim to have a well-structured informatics base to file all of the spatial data and related ones.

For the development of public participation to the LUPlanning activities, it is advisable to follow the Volunteered Geographical Information (VGI), in order and to have a useful dynamic data collection thanks to an effective involvement of citizens.

Process of development of a strategic land use planning tool.

In order to realize this tool, we consider a small-medium size city (population target from 15 to 69 years old that represent computer users, mostly active citizens in a urban area of about 10’000 – 50’000 inhabitants), that represents the reality of the Italian country, and we build our virtual structure that we call SimMyLocalAround (SMyLA), where: Sim(ulation) we took from the popular game Sim City, which is the reference tool, hosting the entire idea; My represents the social media logic, more generally, all of the applications hosted by the Web 2.0, that are customizable and suitable for everyone; the term Local is identified with the territory and its projection on a geographical database by GIS; at last, Around means all that surrounds us, not only physically, but also what interests us, what we like to see in certain situations and in certain time of the day, during the study, at work and in leisure, in a few words, our needs. This latter word also means the growing number of the services for people on Internet, like social networking, that suggests the aim of technology to Web 3.0 or, rather, to City 3.0 (Smart Cities).

With this inspiration, we build a dashboard that consists in a management structure suited to absorb all of the interesting spatial data for the LUPlanning, through the use of which easily order them and make clear their navigation. Together with, we provide the updating of all of these data with the additional contribution of citizens, adopting a PPGIS structure.

At this point the tool stops its function and lets the insiders to make the most appropriate decisions for LUPlanning.

Utility and implementation of the tool

Among hundreds of technological solutions, methodological, theoretical and practical, arising from matters like sociology, economics, computer science and management, we found a right mix to solve the two problems described previously.

The target of SMyLA ideal tool is to put the land use planners working team in condition to solve many problems, like the two we introduced.

Why do we choose the dashboard interface and the PPGIS? The former is because our mind is already prepared to look at the dashboard shape in normal daily activities, just thinking of household appliances, cars, mobile phones and the control panels of great plants. Today thousands of applications use this graphic interface. The latter is for a same reason of mind form that regards the wide daily use of social networks, always filled of contents by the users, constantly updated and spontaneous. This last feature could be negative effects on LUPlanning, so attention is required, trying to give more order to the structure of PPGIS. The aim of the use of the social network form is to export and use just the features that are helpful in the LUPlanning process.

A dashboard for LUPlanning

The dashboard is a simplified representation of data sets derived from the collection process. Through its use the insiders, which are the main users of this graphic interface (GUI), can interact with territorial information in various ways (Kumar 2005). This interface is normally attractive because it shows various information in the same time and in the same place, letting to know to the user all about the system. A dashboard could be not ever complex, formed by lots of elements, including a number of little dashboards, but also very simple, describing few feature (Fig. 2).

An example of very simple dashboard that shows the situation of a hundred sample community of a popular social network through the use of suitable symbols (David McCandless 2009).

A dashboard for LUPlanning should shows to the user a number of maps, data expressed in percentage and graphs, trends of indicators (Fig.3), enriched also with text windows reporting news, alerts, links and short messages and many other “buttons”. For its simple structure it has the relevant advantages to be ready-to-use and time evolving, that means the more frequent is the use the better are the results.

A dashboard example for City of Milano (Urban Ecosystem Dashboard 2007, modified2).

With the best arrangement of information, the dashboard could lead the insiders to have control on the whole situation of the city and easily to interact with it to obtain desired answers to LUPlanning questions.

Public Participatory GIS as crowdsourcing.

A PPGIS took the basis of crowdsourcing that is a concept, now a model business, whereby the potential of a voluntary action of stakeholders becomes a recovery of specialized resources (at vary levels of skills) that are the citizens which have demonstrated their interest and they are prepared to participate. This recovery of resources is similar to Wikipedia structure, in which everyone can contribute to contents of articles, but in this case contents are thematic maps and spatial analysis. Thus the users that are citizens have to be a little more equipped, condition that can be compensated by organized courses that in time will be principally organized by most advanced users, like “cyborgs” (Eades, 2009).

Citizens that are interests in PPGIS are volunteers and they are a valuable resource for municipality and LUPlanning. In time a PPGIS team would be an effective self tool with own dynamic regulations3.

A land planning tool developed on the informatics basis of PPGIS could lead to a future of real time knowledge of the own territory with lots of information (EartmineTM, 2009).

This mechanism is self-feed by an increase of interest and participation, because citizens can interact with own territory and concur to administrate it through an instrument of public domain. Also for that, the public administration can give answer to citizen, following the transparent principle, publishing the results, also facing other themes, like geomarketing.

The five principles of SMyLA

We developed the SMyLA model of ideal tool, combining the use of the dashboard and the PPGIS, following five basic principles:

  • sustainable development;
  • SWOT analysis method;
  • indicators;
  • GIS basis;
  • software opensource.

Sustainable development, today as never, represents a guide model for city development, involving the simultaneous analysis of three macro-spheres of social, environment and economics, in order to make the best choice of development that ensures both the protection for environment and the quality of human life4. In this view, the LUPlanning tool have to make the knowledge operations of planners faster, effective, lower cost and planning choices suitable for the territorial contest, involving also the contribute of citizens.

The analysis of the three spheres of city environment can be done using the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats), method that allows to create a synthesis of information of different sources and to make a comparison between positive and negative factors deriving from the actions of plans or programs5. In this way it is possible to observe the situation of the city divided in the three thematic spheres of point of view (social, environment and economics), so the strengths and the opportunities can be compared in the same spatial plan and at the same time with the weaknesses and threats, that the actions planned can produce (Fig. 5). This is an appealing form to show information that is easily reproducible into a graphic user interface like the dashboard.

SWOT analysis.

This instrument allows the insider primarily to have a cognitive framework of the whole city and secondly to predict the effects and the results of the actions to do, like changing the use of land, improving the waste collection, adopting a free wi-fi net for municipality, to build a road, etc. Every action has a different impact for each sphere, in which it could represent a strength, a weakness, an opportunity or a threat for the city environment.

In this analytic contest, indicators6 are essential instruments for elaborations and assessment phases of LUPlanning. We can divide the urban system in a hierarchical structure of indicators for each thematic sphere, in order to face many different situations at different levels. For example, a road can be observed through indicators at many various levels, using a simple scale of goodness of increasing values (1, 2, 3, 4, …), as follows: the order of the road in the neighbourhood relating to the main one; the number and quality of intersections; type of road and furniture; number and type of service elements (bus stops, etc.). With such system of indicators it’s easy to make a judgement on the quality of the road network and to make the best decision relating this group of indicators with the other thematic spheres of indicators.

The geographical/geometric dimension of territory is the most interesting and uppermost part, with which it is possible to interact, making transformations and visualizing the result directly over the town space. The adoption of GIS basis provides the land use planner to dispose not only of a cartographic basis, but of a real instrument for LUPlanning, independently by the sort of platform web-GIS or desktop-GIS, because it allows to georeferencing any kind of data, like topography, hydrography, land use, images and many other. With georeferenced data it is possible to make integration, elaboration and interpretation of large amounts of data of different nature.

The last principle of our method is the adoption of software open-source. Support computer hardware and software plays a fundamental role in the development of the LUPlanning tool. For the hardware, a standard instrumentation of medium level to build a server is enough and for the software is advisable to follow the OSGeo7 or GFOSS8 guidelines. For data management it could be useful refer to Inspire, in particular Plan4All, whereas for the data structure there are various projects of open data and the same GFOSS indicate the best path of licensing and distribution to get the software. In order to have a reliable database both in terms of speed, storage and querying capacity of many types of data (qualitative, quantitative and geographic) it can be an advantageous solution adopting PostgreSQL with PostGIS9, software that are very supported by the open-source community. To give an example for public administration, the municipality of Prato (Italy) uses PostgreSQL for web consultation and data warehousing.

With such software system the users (often the insiders) dispose of a complete CMS (Content Management System) that allows to achieve data anytime, to compare them and to realize new ideas, like questionnaires, surveys, photographs, etc.

The SWOT of SMyLA

In order to give a dashboard of the features of the SMyLA model of ideal strategic LUPlanning tool presented here, we report the relative SWOT analysis.

Yet another strategic planning Tool
Tab.1 – SWOT analysis of the SMyLA, model of ideal LUPlanning tool

Conclusion

The strategic planning tool we propose follows the spontaneous evolution of all management systems to a growing computerization, not only in order to faster and simplify processes, but principally to make the maximum breadth of public information spreading. Therefore, also the strategic land planning is evolving its formation, resulting from years of research and applications in different territorial realities, tending to reach improvements from new best technologies available. Starting from the use of tools and facilitation, like suggest Inspire10that gives directives for cartographic database using a universal language, it is possible to create a standard development plan and public it. This is a first step to approach to a modern way of local Open Government.

The aim with this tool is to promote municipalities’ adoption of an organizational approach that points on efficiency and automations of operations for the planning and management of land use compatible with the urban contest and sustainable development principles. In this contest, automation and efficiency are at the basis of the idea of Smart City, for which local government policies aim to prevent waste and control errors and to eliminate unnecessary things. Each town will produce its proper configuration, specially studied in relation to the local context and to the type of situation. It is clear that there is not a unique solution for everyone, dependently strictly from the resources that the municipality dispose of, and above all there is not a unique solution that include all that can interest the municipal planning. Just think about the question: it is useful and cost-effective for a town to archive all of the possible information? And many others. For this purpose, using a tool like that, every town can create its customed one, built around its own needs and right-to-size.

The tool dealt with here, maybe, is already thought by many land use planners and maybe it’s time to change. A town should prepare for what will be the natural evolution trend of the management and planning systems. Means are available and the benefits are real, detectable both in the short term and long term. Finally, the question is just the availability of municipal resources to make the change.

References

  • Beth S.N. (2009), Wiki government: how technology can make government better, democracy stronger, and citizens more powerful. Washington, DC Brookings Institution.
  • Brabham D.C. (2009), Crowdsourcing the Public Participation Process for Planning Projects, Planning Theory, August, vol. 8, nr. 3, pp. 242-262.
  • Cottica A. (2010), Wikicrazia. L’azione di governo al tempo della rete. Capirla, progettarla, viverla da protagonista, Navarra Editore.
  • Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE), 14.03.2007 – http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/.
  • ESDIN – European Spatial Data Infrastructure with a Best Practice Network – 2011, http://www.esdin.eu/.
  • Eades G.L. (2009), Unearthing Google: Corporate Networks, Public Participation Geographic Information Systems, and (Infiltrating) Cyborgs, Spatial Knowledge and Information (SKI).
  • Flanagin A.J., Metzger M.J. (2008), The credibility of volunteered geographic information, Geojournal, vol. 72, nnr. 3-4, pp. 137-148.
  • Gnoli C., Marino V., Rosati L. (2006), Organizzare la conoscenza – Dalle biblioteche all’architettura dell’informazione per il Web, Tecniche Nuove ed..
  • Haklay M (2010), How good is volunteered geographical information? A comparative study of OpenStreetMap and Ordnance Survey datasets, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, vol 37, nr. 4, pp. 682 – 703.
  • http://www.datagov.it/open-government/
  • Joint Research Centre, Collezione di cruscotti, Dashboard of Sustainability – http://esl.jrc.it/dc/dbgal_it.htm.
  • Kittur A. (2010), Crowdsourcing, collaboration and creativity, XRDS: Crossroads, The ACM Magazine for Students.
  • Kumar J. et al. (2005), Customization of an interaction center manager’s graphical dashboard, Patent Application Publication U.S.
  • Masser I. (2007), Building European Spatial Data Infrastructures, Esri Press.
  • McCandless D. (2010), Information is beautiful, Collins.
  • Pahl N., Richter A. (2007), SWOT Analysis – Idea, Methodology And A Practical Approach, GRIN Verlag.
  • Ritzer G., Jurgenson N. (2010), Production, Consumption, Prosumption – The nature of capitalism in the age of the digital ‘prosumer’, Journal of Consumer Culture, vol 10 nr. 1, pp. 13–36.
  • Ryttersgaard J. (2001), Spatial data infrastructure – Developing Trends and Challenges, Second Meeting of the Committee on Development Information (CODI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 4 – 7 September 2001.

Reference note

  1. This term is often indicated briefly with Participatory GIS.
  2. http://esl.jrc.it/dc/esu_2007/esu_fvb.htm.
  3. following the examples given by many Wikimedia applications, such as generic wiki-manuals..
  4. Sustainable development has various definitions, here we refer to UNESCO –Johannesburg Summit 2002.
  5. SWOT analysis was developed by a research team at the Stanford Research Institute in the 1960’s (Pahl, Richter, 2007).
  6. Indicators are synthetic parameters that represent environmental situations directly or not directly measurable through a unit and able to express the quality of environment with respect to a fixed reference scale.
  7. Open Source Geospatial Foundation.
  8. Geospatial Free and Open Source Software Association.
  9. www.postgresql.org; postgis.refractions.net.
  10. Directive 2007/2/EC of European Parliament.